The ordinary lathe consists of a bed, a headboard, a gearbox, a feed box, a polished rod, a screw, a slide box, a knife holder, a bed leg and a tailstock. Of course, there are some components such as electrical and cooling systems.
1. Bed: The basic parts of the lathe are used to support and install the components of the lathe to ensure their relative position, such as bedside boxes, feed boxes, slide boxes, etc. The bed has sufficient rigidity and strength, and the surface of the bed is highly accurate to ensure the correct relative position between the components. There are four parallel guide rails on the bed for the correct movement of the large carriage (tool holder) and the tailstock relative to the headboard. In order to maintain the surface accuracy of the bed, care should be taken in the operation of the lathe.
2. Head box (headstock): used to support the spindle and rotate it. The main shaft is a hollow structure. The front outer tapered surface is equipped with an attachment such as a three-jaw chuck to clamp the workpiece, and the inner tapered surface of the front end is used for mounting the tip, and the elongated hole can be inserted into the long bar.
3. Gearbox: The motor drives the gear shaft in the gearbox to rotate. By changing the gear matching (engagement) position in the gearbox, different speeds are obtained.
4. Feed box: Also known as the cutter box , the shift gear with the feed motion can be adjusted to adjust the feed rate and pitch and transmit the motion to the polished rod or screw.
5. Light rod, screw: Transfer the movement of the feed box to the slide box. The polished rod is used for automatic feed of general turning and cannot be used for turning threads. The lead screw is used to turn the thread.
6. Slide box: also known as the drag box, associated with the tool holder, is the control box for the lathe feed movement. It can change the rotary motion transmitted by the polished rod into the longitudinal or lateral linear feed motion of the turning tool; the rotary motion transmitted from the screw can be directly changed into the longitudinal movement of the turning tool through the “disconnect nut” for Turning the thread.
7. Tool holder: used to hold the turning tool and make it move longitudinally, laterally or obliquely.
8. Tailstock (tailstock): Installed on the bed rail. A tip is mounted in the sleeve of the tailstock to support the workpiece; a cutter such as a drill bit and a reamer can be installed to perform hole machining on the workpiece; the tailstock can be offset, and the cone can be turned.
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